In assessing'an experimental instructional gaming program in seventh- and eighth-grade mathematics at Pelham Middle School, Detroit, MI, absenteeism was taken as the most pervasive and pragmatic measure of student attitudes toward the learning environmentof the mathematics classroom. The experimental learning environment contained three major elements in addition to regular mathematics instruction: EQUATIONS, a problem-generating type of game; a twice-a-week tournament arranged to award reinforcements frequently and equally among the participants as well as to individualize the learning experience foreach student; and the organization of classes into teams designed to elicit cooperation. Experimental and control classes were taught by the same teachers for both semesters of the year-long program;the difference between experimental and control groups was their activities during two class periods a week.
Allen, Layman E., co-author. "The Effect of Instructional Gaming Upon Absenteeism: The First Step." D. B. Main, co-author. In ERIC. (Originally published in Simulation and Gaming; Proceedings of the 12th Annual Symposium, National Gaming Council, edited by J. E. Moriarty, 135-58. Washington, D.C.: National Bureau of Standards, 1974.