Notwithstanding medical achievements, the human being has not yet been immunized from physical injury and the pain customarily attending such injury. This fact coupled with the ill-controlled fury of modem life has led to an enormous amount of personal injury litigation. Such litigation, with rare exceptions, presents an evidentiary feature of pain and suffering of the victim. Most often the problem arises where pain and suffering are an element of the damages, although it may likewise be involved in showing the nature or the extent of the physical injury.
Edgar A. Strause S.Ed,
EVIDENCE-ADMISSIBILITY OF EXPRESSIONS OF PAIN AND SUFFERING,
Mich. L. Rev.
Available at: https://repository.law.umich.edu/mlr/vol51/iss6/5