Defendant, while asleep on the rear seat of the automobile driven by plaintiff, kicked the back of the front seat, thereby throwing plaintiff forward and causing plaintiff to lose momentary control. Plaintiff brought this action for injuries sustained when the car crashed into a culvert. Held, the trial court properly instructed the jury that defendant was entitled to a verdict if he was asleep at the time he kicked the front seat. The supreme court stated, "fundamentally to create liability for an act alleged to be negligent, it must be shown to have been the conscious act of a person's volition." Lobert v. Pack, 337 Pa. 103, 9 A. (2d) 365 (1939).

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