Serious obstacles were placed in the path of social legislation by the Supreme Court's decision holding the Railroad Retirement Act unconstitutional.1 To what extent the narrow view taken of the permissible field of regulation of interstate commerce will interfere with other legislation based on the commerce power remains to be seen. The majority of the Court, speaking through Mr. Justice Roberts, found the Act objectionable both as violating the due process clause of the Fifth Amendment of the Constitution and as not being a regulation of commerce under the commerce clause. Before taking up these two aspects of the case, the significant portions of the Act itself should be reviewed.