The Article's focus is confined to discussions of race-based affirmative action; it does not consider stigmatization arguments in the context of discrimination involving gender or disabilities, for example. Further, the Article's scope is limited to the stigmatization issue as between Whites and African Americans. Although similar issues exist with respect to other ethnic or racial groups, we view the White/African American paradigm as providing the clearest framework for analysis. Moreover, the cases of Plessy v. Ferguson and Brown v. Board of Education, joint progenitors of stigmatization as a concept having constitutional significance in interpreting the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, arose within that paradigm and discuss the stigma concept in that context.
Andrew F. Halaby & Stephen R. McAllister,
An Analysis of the Supreme Court's Reliance on Racial "Stigma" as a Constitutional Concept in Affirmative Action Cases,
Mich. J. Race & L.
Available at: https://repository.law.umich.edu/mjrl/vol2/iss2/2