This Article addresses the question of the appropriate response of appellate counsel for Black defendants tarred at trial by the indirect deployment of powerful racial stereotypes. The crux of the problem is that even now, the courts only take exception to blatant racist appeals, even though indirectly racist summations can have a determinative impact at trial. In laying out the contours of the problem, we must draw upon the discipline of rhetoric, or persuasion through oration, to describe various techniques of intentional indirectness that prosecutors use to obviate the possibility of appellate review under the stringent standards of the Fourteenth Amendment.
Ryan P. Alford,
Appellate Review of Racist Summations: Redeeming the Promise of Searching Analysis,
Mich. J. Race & L.
Available at: https://repository.law.umich.edu/mjrl/vol11/iss2/2