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Download Preface (98 KB)

Download Contents (66 KB)

Download I: The Nuclear Age, the United States, and the Test Ban Negotiations (428 KB)

Download II: 1957: La Mise en Scene (791 KB)

Download III: The Conference of Experts (1.8 MB)

Download IV: The Opening of the Diplomatic Negotiations (2.2 MB)

Download V: Formulating a New Western Position (1.1 MB)

Download VI: The Search for Technical Agreement (2.1 MB)

Download VII: The Search for Political Compromise (1.1 MB)

Download VIII: The Collapse of the Conference (981 KB)

Download IX: Controversies Concerning the Control Organization (1.8 MB)

Download X: The Negotiations Resume (1.6 MB)

Download XI: Another New Western Position (1.4 MB)

Download XII: False Hopes (888 KB)

Download XIII: The Moscow Treaty (722 KB)

Download XIV: The Test Ban Negotiations and Treaty in Retrospect (820 KB)

Download Appendix: Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space, and Under Water (263 KB)

Download Bibliography (370 KB)

Download Index (490 KB)


This study began in 1961 as a limited attempt to assess the impact of science and modern technology on the negotiating process and concepts of international organization, using the test ban negotiations then in progress as a case study. When the Moscow Treaty was signed, however, it seemed wise to broaden the focus and to capture as many of the details as we could that might help to explain this first formal arms control agreement between East and West in the nuclear age. Our analysis is clearly not definitive, but hopefully, it will be a useful source, even after all relevant documents have been published. We hope also that the study will fulfill something of its original purpose.

The principal written sources have been the records of the negotiations and the memoirs thus far published. In addition, a large number of the participants have been interviewed. These include President Eisenhower, all three of the Special Assistants to the President for Science and Technology who were involved, Ambassador Arthur H. Dean, Adrian S. Fisher, John J. McNaughton, various other officials of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, the Atomic Energy Commission, the Department of Defense, the Department of State, and most of the American scientists who took part, including Robert F. Bacher, Hans A. Bethe, James B. Fisk, Wolfgang K. H. Panofsky, and Edward Teller. Several United Nations and United Kingdom officials were also interviewed. For obvious reasons, there are no citations for any of the material gained through interviews.

Publication Date



The University of Michigan Press


Ann Arbor


Nuclear disarmament, Nuclear weapons testing, Diplomacy, Negotiations, Moscow Treaty, Technical Working Group of Experts, Eisenhower (Dwight D.), Kennedy (John F.), USSR, Soviet Union, Khrushchev (Nikita), Scientists


International Law | Military, War, and Peace | National Security Law | Science and Technology Law


Published under the auspices of the University of Michigan Law School (which, however, assumes no responsibility for the views expressed) with the aid of funds derived from gifts to the University of Michigan by William W. Cook.

Diplomats, Scientists, and Politicians: The United States and the Nuclear Test Ban Negotiations