For centuries, moral philosophers have regarded ethics and justice in the international plane as part of their domain. The move from the personal to the societal or national to the global seems effortless. In recent years, philosophers in ethics have devoted considerable attention to the ethical significance of nationality and patriotism, asking whether an impartial morality permits better treatment of an individual’s co-nationals; while those in politics have revisited issues of international justice through, for instance, works on human rights and just war theory. These two bodies of work both address what constitutes a just world and what role the individual should play in furthering it. They correspond in many ways to the interactional versus institutional conceptions of morality and justice identified by Thomas Pogge.
Ratner, Steven R. Review of Human Rights: Between Idealism and Realism, Ethics: An International Journal of Social, Political and Legal Philosophy 115, no. 3 (2005): 633-638. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/428471