In this Essay, I evaluate the evidence of "adequate nonprovocation” that Fontaine puts forward to show that the heat of passion defense is decidedly an excuse (more precisely, a partial excuse). I will be focusing my remarks on the traditional heat of passion defense.
The Provocation Defense and the Nature of Justification,
U. Mich. J. L. Reform
Available at: https://repository.law.umich.edu/mjlr/vol43/iss1/6