This article will examine the doctrine of noncommercial purpose in the professional context and assess whether conduct undertaken by the professions conforms to the presumptions underlying the per se doctrine. It is the thesis of this article that the per se doctrine should not preclude inquiry into whether a valid noncommercial purpose justifies conduct undertaken in good faith by a profession to regulate its membership or to advance some other public interest. This article concludes that, with respect to professions, the goals of the Sherman Act are better served by inquiry into noncommercial purposes and application of the rule of reason than by rigid adherence to the per se doctrine.
Jonathan C. Dickey,
The Professions and Noncommercial Purposes: Applicability of Per Se Rules Under the Sherman Act,
U. Mich. J. L. Reform
Available at: https://repository.law.umich.edu/mjlr/vol11/iss3/7