After briefly summarizing the classical doctrine of state responsibility, Part One will discuss whether extending compensation to the harmful consequences of certain hazardous activities necessarily involves the recognition of a "liability for lawful conduct" without any link to traditional ideas of state responsibility. Part Two, starting again from responsibility for wrongful acts, will discuss whether raising a new category, the breach of an "essential obligation" or "international crimes," confers not only an obligation to make reparations, but a right, in both the victim state and the non-victim states, to sanction the responsible state.
The International Law of State Responsibility: Revolution or Evolution?,
Mich. J. Int'l L.
Available at: https://repository.law.umich.edu/mjil/vol11/iss1/4