This article explores issues arising from third state enforcement of international law. Support for third state remedies may be found in law, practice, and the literature. It is not, however, definitively stablished. Third state remedies may appear at first glance to serve only the desirable goal of promoting rules of international law, but they may also produce negative side effects. The challenge to the international community is to design an effective third state enforcement regime that minimizes undesirable side effects.
Jonathan I. Charney,
Third State Remedies in International Law,
Mich. J. Int'l L.
Available at: https://repository.law.umich.edu/mjil/vol10/iss1/13