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Download Front Matter (532 KB)

Download Preface (3.1 MB)

Download Table of Contents (2.1 MB)

Download Chapter I: The Sources of the Principles of State Equality (32.0 MB)

Download Chapter II: The Principle of State Equality in the System of Grotius (33.0 MB)

Download Chapter III: The Origin of the Principle of State Equality (31.9 MB)

Download Chapter IV: The Principle of State Equality in the Writings of Modern Publicists (56.2 MB)

Download Chapter V: The Principle of State Equality in the Documentary Sources of the Last Century (36.5 MB)

Download Chapter VI: Internal Limitations Upon the Equality of States (31.1 MB)

Download Chapter VII: External Limitations Upon the Equality of States (60.4 MB)

Download Chapter VIII: Limitations Upon the Political Equality of States (56.0 MB)

Download Chapter IX: Conclusions (3.0 MB)

Download Supplementary Chapter: The Equality of States in the Peace of Paris (45.3 MB)

Download Bibliography (20.7 MB)

Download Index (25.4 MB)


The author has attempted in this volume to present the equality of states as it appears in the theory of international law and also as it is affected by common usage. Theoretical aspects of the subject are considered in chapters dealing with the sources of the principle, its origin, and its significance in the writings of modem publicists and in illustrative documents. The opinion that Grotius first established the principle in international law is examined and evidence is adduced which indicates that the opinion is erroneous. The equality of states as affected by common usage is really their inequality or status. It involves the study of internal and external factors which limit the capacity of the state as an international person in a variety of ways. Attention has been given to certain features of the organic constitution of the state and also to certain external relationships with other states which are regarded as limitations upon international legal capacity. Political capacity has been viewed as a distinct problem and the limitations of which international relationships afford illustrations have received separate consideration.

Everything in the volume except the Supplementary Chapter was written during the World War and the manuscript was in the printer's hands before the Peace Conference assembled. The materials on the work of the Peace Conference which have since become available are considered in the Supplementary Chapter. This chapter is of necessity incomplete, but it is believed that the relevancy of the subject matter justifies its inclusion.

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Harvard University Press




Foreign relations, Legal sources, History


International Law | Legal History


Harvard Studies in Jurisprudence. Volume III

The Equality of States in International Law