Good editors don’t just see the sentence that was written. They see the sentence that might have been written. They know how to spot words that shouldn’t be included and summon up ones that haven’t yet appeared. Their value comes not just from preventing mistakes but from discovering new ways to improve a piece of writing’s style, structure, and overall impact.
This book— which is based on a popular course taught at the University of Chicago Law School, the University of Michigan Law School, and the UCLA School of Law— is designed to help you become one of those editors. You’ll learn how to edit with empathy. You’ll learn how to edit with statistics. You’ll learn, in short, a wide range of compositional skills you can use to elevate your advocacy and better champion the causes you care about the most.
An All-American soccer player in college who holds both a PhD in English and a JD, Professor Patrick Barry joined the University of Michigan Law School after clerking for two federal judges and working in legal clinics devoted to combatting human trafficking and reforming the foster care system. He is the author of several books on advocacy—including Good with Words: Writing and Editing, The Syntax of Sports, and Notes on Nuance—and regularly puts on workshops for law firms, state governments, and nonprofit organizations. He also teaches at the University of Chicago Law School and has developed a series of online courses for the educational platform Coursera.
Learning how to give and receive feedback is fundamental to the development of every student and professional. Yet few of us are ever taught anything like “feedback skills.”
This book, which is the first in the Feedback Loops series, is designed to change that. Here is what students who have taken the University of Michigan Law School course on which the series is based have said about it:
“One of the most memorable and useful classes I have taken in law school!”
“Excellent, full stop.”
“This class was always a fun highlight of my week.”
Suppose you were good with words. Suppose when you decided to speak, the message you delivered—and the way you delivered it—successfully connected with your intended audience. What would that mean for your career prospects? What would that mean for your comfort level in social situations? And perhaps most importantly, what would that mean for your satisfaction with the personal relationships you value the most?
This book is designed to help you find out. Based on an award-winning course and workshop series at the University of Michigan taken by students training to enter a wide range of fields—law, business, medicine, social work, public policy, design, engineering, and many more—it removes the guesswork from figuring out how to communicate clearly and compellingly. All of us have ideas that are worth sharing. Why not learn how to convey yours in a way that people will appreciate, enjoy, and remember?
To succeed in law, business, education, government, health care, and many other fields, it is becoming increasingly important to distinguish yourself as a savvy communicator. Social media has only accelerated the ways in which we all must learn to use our words to connect, compete, and create. There are features of the English language, however, that many of us haven’t taken full advantage of yet. Notes on Nuance is designed to help change that.
Drawing on a diverse collection of authors—from novelists to physicists, from ancient Greek historians to modern-day CEOs—it reveals the hidden mechanics that skilled writers use to add style and sophistication to their sentences and slogans. It’s the perfect resource for people who are looking to do more with their written words.
This book includes materials from a popular course called “Good with Words: Writing and Editing” that Professor Patrick Barry created at both the University of Michigan Law School and the University of Chicago Law School. An online version of that course is now available through the educational platform Coursera.
Don Duquette, Britany Orlebeke, Andrew Zinn, Robbin Pott, Ada Skyles, and Xiaomeng Zhou
From 2009 to 2016 the University of Michigan Law School served as the National Quality Improvement Center on the Representation of Children in the Child Welfare System (QIC-ChildRep). This seven-year, multimillion dollar project, directed by Clinical Professor Don Duquette, conducted a national needs assessment that identified a substantial consensus on the role and duties of the child’s lawyer. The needs assessment led to the QIC-ChildRep Best Practice Model, an update and expansion of the 1996 ABA Standards for Lawyers Representing Children in Child Abuse and Neglect Cases.
Released in 2016 as a300-page softcover book, CHILDREN'S JUSTICE is the final report of the QIC-ChildRep project, guiding the reader through 13 chapters and 3 appendices:
- Chapter 1: Challenge: Improve Child Representation in America
- Chapter 2: Evolution of Child Representation
- Chapter 3: National Needs Assessment
- Chapter 4: Emerging Consensus and the QIC Best Practice Model
- Chapter 5: Six Core Skills and the QIC Best Practice Training
- Chapter 6: What the Lawyers Say About Implementing the Six Core Skills Chapter
- 7: Sample Selection and Research Methods Chapter
- 8: Profile of Lawyers Representing Children Chapter
- 9: Lawyer Activities and Their Impact Chapter
- 10: Findings of the Evaluation of the QIC-ChildRep Best Practices Model Training for Attorneys
- Chapter 11: Reflections on QIC Empirical Findings
- Chapter 12: The Flint MDT Study: A Description and Evaluation of a Multidisciplinary Team Representing Children in Child Welfare Cases
- Chapter 13: How to Improve Legal Representation of Children in America’s Child Welfare System
- Appendix A: QIC Best Practice Model of Child Representation in the Child Welfare System
- Appendix B: 1996 American Bar Association Standards of Practice for Lawyers Who Represent Children in Abuse and Neglect Cases
- Appendix C: 2011 ABA Model Act Governing Representation of Children in Abuse, Neglect and Dependency Proceedings
This product was created by the National Quality Improvement Center on the Representation of Children in the Child Welfare System at the University of Michigan Law School, Cooperative Agreement No. 90CO1047, funded by the Children’s Bureau, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
James C. Hathaway
The Michigan Guidelines on the International Protection of Refugees are the result of a collective endeavor of hundreds of scholars, advocates, judges, and international officials to tackle some of the most important and challenging questions in international refugee law. This volume presents 20 years of the Guidelines — the consensus work of senior Michigan Law students and experts from around the world on cutting-edge refugee law concerns — in five languages (English, French, Spanish, Arabic, and Russian).
The Guidelines address five of the most difficult issues of refugee status: what is the meaning of a “well-founded fear”; when may refugee status be denied on grounds of an “internal protection alternative”; how is the causal connection to a Convention ground to be assessed; when is a risk fairly said to be for reasons of “political opinion”; and under what circumstances are persons believed to have violated rules of international criminal law to be excluded from refugee status? Additionally, this volume also addresses three critical aspects of refugee rights – when may a refugee be required to seek protection in a country not of his or her choosing; to what extent is a refugee entitled to undertake employment or other economic activity; and what is the scope of a refugee’s right to freedom of movement, both between states and within the asylum country?
I finished the original manuscript of Digital Copyright in 2000, two years after Congress enacted the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. The 1976 Copyright Act was itself 24 years old, and beginning to show its age. The Internet, in contrast, was still new and shiny and scary, especially for legacy entertainment and information businesses and the copyright lawyers who represented them.
Seventeen years later, the Internet has become an essential feature of all of our lives and the copyright laws designed to tame it seem elderly and barnacle-encrusted. Remarkably, the legislative process that has made sensible copyright law reform all but impossible has stayed largely unchanged. Congress and the Copyright Office have recently launched what is billed as a comprehensive reexamination of copyright law with the goal of overhauling the law for the 21st century. It seems likely that these efforts will hew to the patterns of earlier copyright revision.
Perhaps we stick with the tried and true approach to making copyright laws, even though it results in bad laws, because the process works so well for so many of the participants. Members of Congress can rely on affected industries to come up with broadly acceptable compromises, and to take on much of the burden of pressuring other interested groups to swallow them. Meanwhile, Senators and Representatives can continue to collect generous campaign contributions. The Copyright Office can be the center of attention as it plays a crucial role in managing the multilateral negotiations and interpreting their results to Congress. Copyright lobbyists and trade organizations can collect hefty fees from their members, in return for supplying them with laws that will give them competitive advantages against the next new thing, whatever it is. Because the laws that emerge from this process don’t work very well, meanwhile, everyone can look forward to another round.
Aaron Perzanowski and Jason Schultz
An argument for retaining the notion of personal property in the products we “buy” in the digital marketplace.
The open access edition of this book was made possible by generous funding from Arcadia – a charitable fund of Lisbet Rausing and Peter Baldwin.
If you buy a book at the bookstore, you own it. You can take it home, scribble in the margins, put in on the shelf, lend it to a friend, sell it at a garage sale. But is the same thing true for the ebooks or other digital goods you buy? Retailers and copyright holders argue that you don't own those purchases, you merely license them. That means your ebook vendor can delete the book from your device without warning or explanation—as Amazon deleted Orwell's 1984 from the Kindles of surprised readers several years ago. These readers thought they owned their copies of 1984. Until, it turned out, they didn't. In The End of Ownership, Aaron Perzanowski and Jason Schultz explore how notions of ownership have shifted in the digital marketplace, and make an argument for the benefits of personal property.
Of course, ebooks, cloud storage, streaming, and other digital goods offer users convenience and flexibility. But, Perzanowski and Schultz warn, consumers should be aware of the tradeoffs involving user constraints, permanence, and privacy. The rights of private property are clear, but few people manage to read their end user agreements. Perzanowski and Schultz argue that introducing aspects of private property and ownership into the digital marketplace would offer both legal and economic benefits. But, most important, it would affirm our sense of self-direction and autonomy. If we own our purchases, we are free to make whatever lawful use of them we please. Technology need not constrain our freedom; it can also empower us.
Ellen D. Katz and Samuel R. Bagenstos
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was an extraordinary achievement of law, politics, and human rights. On the fiftieth anniversary of the Act's passage, it is appropriate to reflect on the successes and failures of the civil rights project reflected in the statute, as well as on its future directions. This volume represents an attempt to assess the Civil Rights Act's legacy.
On October 11, 2013, a diverse group of civil rights scholars met at the University of Michigan Law School in Ann Arbor to assess the interpretation, development, and administration of civil rights law in the five decades since President Lyndon Baines Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act. In the volume that follows, readers will find edited versions of the papers that these scholars presented, enriched by our lively discussions at and after the conference. We hope that the essays in this volume will contribute to the continuing debates regarding the civil rights project in the United States and the world.
Donald J. Herzog
Early modern English canonical sources and sermons often urge the subordination of women. In Household Politics, Don Herzog argues that these sources were blather—not that they were irrelevant, but that plenty of people rolled their eyes at them. Indeed many held that a man had to be an idiot or a buffoon to try to act on their hoary “wisdom.” Households didn’t bask serenely in naturalized or essentialized patriarchy. Instead, husbands, wives, and servants struggled endlessly over authority. Nor did some insidiously gendered public/private distinction make the political subordination of women invisible. Conflict, Herzog argues, doesn't corrode social order: it's what social order usually consists in. He uses the argument to impeach conservatives and their radical critics for sharing confused alternatives. The social world Herzog brings vibrantly alive is much richer—and much pricklier—than many imagine.
Rachel Weber and David Santacroce
This handbook is designed to provide local economic development practitioners with an important tool. It takes the reader step-by-step through the different elements of contracts that treat public incentive packages as a quid pro quo for public benefits. Each section discusses a different element of the ideal deal: valuation of public costs and benefits, performance standards, disclosure and oversight, and enforcement. In each section we provide detailed examples of model provisions used by local governments in their incentive legislation, ordinances, and contracts -- information that has not before been obtained or recorded in any systematic way. These examples are meant to both illustrate the key principles for negotiating ideal deals and also serve as templates for actual contract language. They are supplemented with commentary culled from interviews conducted with local government officials, academic studies, and reports by watchdog organizations around the country.
Margaret A. Leary
This collection of articles published from 2002-2004 is the embryo of a biography I hope to complete so that full information about the life and times of William W. Cook (1858- 1930) is accessible. Cook was important to the University of Michigan and its Law School because he gave virtually all of his considerable fortune to the Law School, and was the first individual to give so much.
Jessica D. Litman
In 1998, copyright lobbyists succeeded in persuading Congress to enact laws greatly expanding copyright owners' control over individuals' private uses of their works. The efforts to enforce these new rights have resulted in highly publicized legal battles between established media and new upstarts.
In this book, law professor Jessica Litman questions whether copyright laws crafted by lawyers and their lobbyists really make sense for the vast majority of us. Should every interaction between ordinary consumers and copyright-protected works be restricted by law? Is it practical to enforce such laws, or expect consumers to obey them? What are the effects of such laws on the exchange of information in a free society?
She argues for reforms of the 1998 copyright law that reflect common sense and the way people actually behave in their daily digital interactions.
This paperback edition includes an afterword that comments on later developments, such as the end of the Napster story, the rise of peer-to-peer file sharing, the escalation of a full-fledged copyright war, the filing of lawsuits against thousands of individuals, and the June 2005 Supreme Court decision in the Grokster case.
For centuries public claims on behalf of science have been made about our nature and the nature of the world as a whole. Over the twentieth century such claims on behalf of science have grown deeper and stronger. More and more they are total claims, cosmological in the largest sense, and they have evoked opposition equally deep and strong.
There is the scientist in all of us. There is, too, the lawyer and law in all of us, which we realize the moment we serve as a witness or citizen juror. This book explores what the legal mind and ear can contribute to resolving this deep and growing conflict within and among us.
"The question is not whether the theory of the cosmos affects matters, but whether, in the long run, anything else affects them." This was the prescient epigraph William James adopted for his lectures on pragmatism at the beginning of the twentieth century. In it is why this conflict is so deep at the beginning of the twenty-first and its resolution so important for our future together. We know that conventional limits and restraints can change with belief about the ultimate nature of things. The twentieth century has its warning examples, most gruesome where total vision has appeared in social and political thought. The connection between what we think about the nature of the world, and what we allow ourselves to do, is now widely felt, and, with good reason, widely feared.
Our question here will be whether there are, in fact, openings in the total visions of today. The visions are of the facts of the world. What are the facts about the visions? The juror in us might naturally ask of a person testifying to them, "How am I to take what you are saying? Do you actually believe what I hear you to say?" This is empirical inquiry that we all engage in all the time without much thinking how we do it. At our best, especially in important matters, we reach for all the evidence. We listen to all a person says before concluding what any part of it might mean, and we treat what a person does as evidence of the meaning of what a person says.
In this way we will be addressing here how far belief about the ultimate nature of things has actually changed over the twentieth century, in scientist or nonscientist. We will try to let ourselves be told what science is, on behalf of which people speak, and we will wonder how "antiscience" could ever really be a stance to take. Throughout, we will be asking how any total vision of the world can claim the true allegiance of human beings living and thinking together in it.
This book is also about belief-or not-in spirit. The child learns to speak. The song sparrow comes to sing a beautiful song, special not just to its kind but to its individual throat and tongue. They are often compared, the development of individual song in the song sparrow and language in the child. Experiments that would be gruesome and called atrocity in a human context are performed on the young song sparrow. What is it that holds us back from performing the same experiment on the child-or letting it be done? What really, in thought and actual belief today?
On such large questions touching our basic view of each other and ourselves, and other creatures too such as the song sparrow, we should be having a conversation or open meditation. The discussion ought not to be primarily argumentative, as we tend to understand argument. Binding you to me by successful moves of my mind would lose all that can be hoped for. It cannot be merely descriptive, with us absent from the picture. Nor should it try to move from one proposition to another whose meaning or truth depends on having done with the first. In any conversation or meditation we return more than once to the questions and examples with which we begin, and we will do so here. An earlier book of mine took a form that was meant to merge with and give the reader an experience of its subject, which was the legal form of thought. The form of this book too .reflects what we are talking about, a world that really does include ourselves.
Nicholas Rine and Ly U. Meng
The study of professional responsibility is, of course, critical to those who wish to practice as lawyers. Without a clear understanding of the expectations of the profession, no lawyer will function effectively. Beyond that simple practical need, however, new lawyers need to have a realistic perspective on the competence and the limitations of their profession.
But the study of legal ethics is a valuable undertaking even for those who have no intention of becoming lawyers. Many people see the legal system as a mysterious set of rituals which make little sense. (And that perspective is not completely unrealistic.) For any one with an interest in under standing how the law works, it is important to understand how and why those who work within the law behave.
Hopefully this text will make some sense of that behavior for both audiences.
D. A. Celphane, Barbara McQuade, Leonard Niehoff, and Daniel P. Malone
In Upjohn Co v. United States, the United States Supreme Court acknowledged that the attorney-client privilege - the "oldest of the privileges for confidential communications known to the common law" - has the crucial purpose of "encourag[ing] full and frank communication between attorneys and their clients and thereby promote[s] broader public interests in the observance of law and administration of justice." Similarly, in Hickman v Taylor, the Court stressed the importance of the work-product doctrine, noting that "[n]ot even the most liberal of discovery theories can justify unwarranted inquiries into the files and the mental impressions of an attorney." It is beyond question that, at a theoretical level, the attorney-client privilege and the work-product doctrine serve significant interests and that, at a practical level, attorneys constantly encounter issues involving these principles.
Nevertheless, many attorneys do not acquire their familiarity with these crucial principles in any systematic way. Law school courses and casebooks often treat these principles superficially, and busy practicing lawyers tend to research specific issues only as they arise in the course of their work. As a result, many attorneys (and perhaps some judges) may not clearly understand the significance, scope, and limits of these doctrines. This publication is an attempt to solve this problem by offering a systematic and thorough examination of the attorney-client privilege and the work-product doctrine under Michigan law.
Part II of this text addresses the attorney-client privilege; Part III addresses the work-product doctrine; and Part IV addresses ethics concepts of confidences and secrets. Wherever possible, Michigan authority has been cited and quoted. In some instances, federal cases are instructive in interpreting Michigan law or in filling an apparent gap in Michigan law; under those circumstances, the text freely cites and quotes from federal authority. The goal is to provide a comprehensive examination of these principles as interpreted by the Michigan courts.
Since we will be talking about science and antiscience, let me begin by recalling the work of Erasmus Darwin, grandfather of Charles Darwin.
Erasmus was a naturalist like his grandson. He was distinguished in his time and is well known still in his own right. But he wrote scientific works in verse, even what might be called poems. One of them was The Botanic Garden, and the best known and most effective part of it was entitled The Loves of the Plants. It was full of imagery from the classics and from biology, full of metaphor and play. Our noticing this blending of science and poetry and the absence of any sense of alienness one from the other, under the name Erasmus, may be the best way to start our inquiry here.
David L. Chambers
American law students are borrowing large sums of money. For graduates at many schools, cumulative debts of $35,000 from college and law school have become the norm and debts of $40,000, $50,000 and even more are common. The sums students are borrowing are much larger today than they were ten years ago, even after adjusting for increases in the cost of living. They have risen at a vastly faster pace than the initial salaries at small law firms and government agencies. They have even risen at a faster pace than the initial salaries in many large firms. The new pattern of borrowing suggests some obvious questions. One is whether students' concerns about the burden of high debts affect the choices they are making about the kinds of jobs to seek upon graduation. Another is whether those who are borrowing these large sums are likely to have difficulty making payments after they graduate. As a small step toward answering these questions, nine law schools agreed to administer a common, brief questionnaire to the members of their graduating classes in April 1989. The nine schools, though diverse in many respects, can not be taken as representative of all American law schools, but our findings can be seen as suggestive of issues almost certainly arising in some form at nearly all American law schools. What follows is a report on the findings from the questionnaire.
Thomas A. Green
This book treats the history of the English criminal trial jury from its origins to the eve of the Victorian reforms in the criminal law. It consists of eight free-standing essays on important aspects of that history and a conclusion. Each chapter addresses the phenomenon that has come to be known as "jury nullification," the exercise of jury discretion in favor of a defendant whom the jury nonetheless believes to have committed the act with which he is charged. Historically, some instances of nullification reflect the jury's view that the act in question is not unlawful, while in other cases the jury does not quarrel with the law but believes that the prescribed sanction is too severe. Order is imposed on the book not by time but by a unity of concern. This approach trades the continuity of a comprehensive narrative for a more detailed treatment of issues and events of particular significance.
With one exception, these essays are not concerned with establishing the fact of nullification. No one who has studied the history of criminal law doubts that on occasion this practice occurs. (Indeed, the practice is a central topic in many of the important studies of the social history of crime that have appeared in recent years.) What interests me most is not the persistence of nullification but its imp_act through time on the substantive law, on the administration of the law, and on the ways in which Englishmen-officials, jurists, and laymen-thought about both the jury and the law. It is on these aspects that I focus, and it is that focus that makes the book (at least in the author's mind) a general social and intellectual history of an important element of English criminal law.
Whitmore Gray, Kazuo Sugeno, Walter L. Ames, Ronald G. Brown, and Richard O. Briggs
Over the past fifteen years there has been a remarkable growth in the study of Japanese law in the United States. The foundation was laid during the late 1950's when the Harvard-Michigan-Stanford program brought together Japanese legal specialists and their American counterparts for study and research. At the end of this program a major conference was held, and the resulting publication, Law in Japan, continues to serve as a point of departure in descriptive studies of Japanese law.
During the 1960's interest in Japan continued to develop among law faculty members, but an even more important development was the increase in the number of students coming to the law school who already had some Japanese language and area training. With these students as a nucleus, a few law schools have begun to offer work in Japanese law. Some of these courses have been taught by visiting Japanese professors, and a few are taught regularly by Americans trained in Japanese law.
At the same time, the Japanese legal system has been studied by many non-lawyers, such as political scientists, sociologists, and anthropologists. Constitutional law, family law, and criminal law have been analyzed as political and social phenomena in studies which have gone beyond legal rules to origins and practices.
The four papers in this volume represent these various developments. One is by a visiting scholar, two were written by students in a course dealing with Japanese law, and one is part of a doctoral thesis in anthropology.
John P. Dawson
Based on the lectures delivered at The University of Michigan March 12, 13, 16, 17, and 18, 1959, on The Thomas M. Cooley Lectureship, under the title "Judges: Oracles of the Law."
This study will examine the nature and extent of the contribution that case law has made to the legal systems of England, Rome, France, and Germany. The emphasis will be historical, but the object will be to show the lasting effects of historical experience on modern usage and attitudes.
L. Hart Wright, Jean Van Houtte, Pierre Kerlan, Helmut Debatin, James Arthur Johnstone, H. Schuttevaer, and Elizabeth G. Brown
Tax administrators in well developed countries rarely have either occasion or opportunity to compare experiences or exchange opinions regarding procedures and practices utilized in administering complicated tax laws. Moreover, there is little comparative literature on the subject. Even the tax institutes which are internationally oriented usually focus on substantive tax principles, not procedures and practices. Hopefully, therefore, administrators in highly developed countries will find useful this analytic comparison of practices and procedures through which six of their number resolve disputable income tax questions -administratively and judicially.
Concern for tax administrators in well developed countries, however, was not the prime motivation for this study. The initial conception grew out of the belief that administrators in countries just now developing would find especially useful an analytic comparison of diverse functioning models which had evolved out of long experience. Since these now developing countries differ from one another on many counts, it was imperative that there be equally wide dissimilarity among the several experienced countries selected as models. Thus, the choice of Belgium, France, West Germany, Great Britain, the Netherlands, and the United States. These countries differ in their size and population, the complexity and precision of their tax statutes, the degree their legislative bodies provide additional guidance through pre-enactment materials, the assessment system used (self- versus non-self-assessment systems), the standards of construction to which their courts traditionally conform, the theoretical status assigned by each to the doctrine of precedent, and the types of persons available to handle tax disputes-both within and without the government. Consequently, it was possible to determine whether such basic differences were relevant or irrelevant when choosing, from among the alternative functioning models, the structural arrangement and practices most appropriate for each level involved in the conflict resolution process.
Also, the analytic comparison contained in the first four chapters should enable any given country to determine the extent to which diverse parts of different wholes are adaptable to its situation. The third purpose of this study is a byproduct of the first two. Practitioners engaged in international tax practice may gain a useful insight into the conflict resolution process followed in each of the six countries covered.
Whitmore Gray and Raymond Stults
This book is an English translation of the Soviet Civil Code as published in Sovetskaia Iustitsiia in 1964. This book also includes the Russian original.
Elizabeth Gaspar Brown
When a dependency severs its formal connection with the mother country - irrespective of the century in which such severance occurs - the act of independence can neither eradicate the past nor solve all problems of the future. In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, the United States of America discovered that independence from Great Britain in itself did not abolish the need for rules and regulations by which men could anticipate with some degree of certainty the consequences of particular actions. Wholesale adoption of such English statutes as were suited to their condition offered a solution to the need for a body of laws. At the same time it avoided the need to draft and enact a comprehensive body of legislation at the moment the newly independent jurisdictional entities were faced with a wide assortment of internal and external problems.
As colonists, the citizens of these newly independent states had clamored for the untrammelled use of the English statutes and the common law and had made much of Great Britain's refusal to concede such use. After 1776 they were free to use, adapt, or reject the statutes and the common law which they had claimed as their birthright and heritage. This study is designed to show the extent to which British statutes without re-enactment were declared to be or were considered to be in force or not in force in the twenty-eight separate jurisdictions of the United States during the first sixty years of the nation's independence.
To keep the scope of the study within reasonable limits, no substantial effort was made to learn the extent to which English statutes were re-enacted as state or territorial statutes. That this re-enactment did occur in some jurisdictions is apparent upon an examination of the early state or territorial statutes, especially those dealing with subjects such as wills or uses or waste. That such re-enactment, together with the enactment of state or territorial acts geared to local needs, lessened the use of and emphasis upon English statutes is likewise apparent. It is not irrelevant to note that codification of a jurisdiction's laws was more frequently than not coupled with a repeal of all English statutes heretofore in force.
Alfred F. Conard, James N. Morgan, Robert W. Pratt Jr, Charles E. Voltz, and Robert L. Bombaugh
The report is presented as a pool of data which will serve many purposes. First of all, the report furnishes a perspective on the largeness and the smallness of the reparation process, and of its many parts. Second, the report supplies much more specific information than has ever before been available on many points, such as the high or low level of reparation in relation to losses; the number of people who get paid, and those who receive nothing; the levels of legal expense, including attorneys' fees. Third, it will furnish a guide for future research directed to narrower questions, by disclosing what are the kinds and approximate dimensions of the phenomena which call for further examination. In order to suggest what sorts of information the report contains, and what conclusions may be drawn from it, a few of its findings are sketched in the following paragraphs. These findings have been selected from among many others as the ones most likely to be meaningful in the eyes of readers of many different kinds. Most of this summary relates to the survey of Michigan automobile accidents, which forms the major portion of this study.
This series includes the full text of select faculty-authored books, including some authored by Thomas M. Cooley.
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