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It is one thing to know a general rule of common law. It is another to know the application of the general rule, its variations and-exceptions, in a particular state. Both are important. Without the first, the lawyer becomes the mere tradesman. Worse than that for him, he is often helpless, for with all the gray mule and spotted cow cases to which a benevolent digester directs him he does not sense the legally significant facts so that he can recognize an authority when he sees it. Without the second, even the lawyer with a grasp of fundamentals is at a disadvantage, for a single local case may upset the whole, course of a carefully reasoned analysis. This and other discussions of Iowa law which appear in the pages of this magazine are published with the hope that an exposition and analysis of local decisions will be helpful to the profession. In general they blaze no new paths in jurisprudence. If they aid in a better understanding of what we already have their publication is justified.