It’s not hard to describe what tort law does. As a first approximation, we might say that tort empowers those who suffer certain sorts of injuries or invasions to seek remedies from those who brought about those injuries or invasions. The challenge is to explain why tort does that, or to explain what tort is trying to do when it does that. After all, it is not obvious that we should have an institution specially concerned with the injuries and invasions that count as torts.
Hershovitz, Scott. "What Does Tort Law Do? What Can it Do?" Val. U. L. Rev. 47, no. 1 (2012): 99-118.