My responsibility in this paper is to address three questions. (1) How has the legal realist body of thought affected contract law and its application? (2) How will contract law and its application be affected in the future by realist thinking? (3) If the realist viewpoint were fully accepted, what kind of system would result and how would contract law be affected? Because my focus is upon a principal legislative monument to realism, Article Two of the Uniform Commercial Code (the "U.C.C."), and upon its drafter, Karl Llewellyn, I will not answer any of the three questions explicitly. By focusing on specific sections of Article Two, I hope to demonstrate some of the realists' successes and failures and some of the limits to their approach.
White, James J. "Promise Fulfilled and Principle Betrayed." Ann. Surv. Am. L. 1988, vol. 1 (1988): 7-48.