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In one of his later published works, Eric Stein wrote that "[a]s modern administrative state, transparency in the Union is essential not only to inform member state parliaments and electorates, but also to help form an all-European debate and public opinion that are required to sustain advanced integration."' In his usual prescient way, Professor Stein captured the dilemma of the European Union as it has shifted from an amalgam of states seeking consensus in a largely behind-closed-doors way to what many would see as an emerging federal state. With its undoubted ability to project power, will the European Union effectively transform its processes to that its state-like power is subject to meaningful constraints and accountability, in particular those set by the rules of public international law?