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Current First Amendment analysis lacks a coherent view of speech in the professions. Classic cases address the street-comer orator, lone pamphleteer, newspaper editor, broadcaster, cable operator, public employee, grant recipient, vendor, corporation, and, most recently, Internet content provider. And an abundance of theory accompanies these speakers along the way. Although some of these actors may be professionals, both theory and practice generally meet their roles as members of a profession with silence. Despite the century-old recognition of the regulation of professions, we still have, for example, no paradigm for the First Amendment rights of attorneys, physicians, or financial advisers when they communicate with their clients.


Originally published as Halberstam, Daniel. "Commercial Speech, Professional Speech, and the Constitutional Status of Social Institutions." University of Pennsylvania Law Review 147, no. 4 (1999): 771-874.