We begin our reply by asking the reader to consider this typical case taken from Professor Vandervort’s current practice. It is one of several similar cases currently being handled by the clinic he works in and similar to many dozens—perhaps hundreds—of cases handled over the past 30 years.
Vandervort, Frank E. and Vincent J. Palusci. "Response to: How Should We Respond to Pregnancy and Substance Use?" American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children Advisor 31, no. 2 (2019).