The Possibility of Pretext Analysis in Commerce Clause Adjudication
The federal government has passed three laws. One prohibits restaurant owners from discriminating on the basis of race, one prohibits the possession of a firearm within 1000 feet of a school zone, and one creates a civil remedy, enforceable in federal court, for victims of gender-motivated violence. Question: The justifications offered by the federal government for these provisions have been rooted in what constitutional value? Answers: Commerce; Commerce; Commerce.
Seinfeld, Gil. "The Possibility of Pretext Analysis in Commerce Clause Adjudication." Notre Dame Law Review 78, no. 4 (2003): 1251-1328.