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To their murderers these wretched people were not individuals at all. They came in wholesale lots and were treated worse than animals. This was Telford Taylor, beginning the presentation of the "Medical Case" at the Nuremberg Trials. The "Medical Case" was not about genocide or war or the conduct of war. It was about experimentation on human beings, and it was this trial that produced the "Nuremberg Code," the first control of such treatment of human beings by one another, so surprisingly late in the history of modern scientific investigation, midtwentieth century, and so surprisingly absent everywhere before, despite the ancient law of assault and homicide.