The events of September 11, 2001, have sparked a fierce debate over racial profiling. Many who readily condemned the practice a year ago have had second thoughts. In the wake of September 11, the Department ofJustice initiated a program of interviewing thousands of men who arrived in this country in the past two years from countries with an al Qaeda presence-a program that some attack as racial profiling, and others defend as proper law enforcement. In this Essay, Professors Gross and Livingston use that program as the focus of a discussion of the meaning of racial profiling, its use in a variety of contexts, and its relationship to other police practices that take race or ethnicity into account.
Gross, Samuel R. "Racial Profiling under Attack." D. Livingston, co-author. Colum. L. Rev. 102, no. 5 (2002): 1413-38.