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In these times when we see combinations of employers co-operating under trade agreements with combinations of employees to conduct immense industries, we are apt to forget the remarkable development of ideas concerning industrial economy that has occurred within a life-time. It was only eighty years ago that the merchants of Boston met to discountenance and check what were then regarded as unlawful combinations of workmen formed to protest against the long work day, low wages, and oppressive rules of their masters. The sum of $20,000 was raised at this meeting of merchants and ship owners to fight the movement for a ten hour day. Such men as Wendell PHILLIPS, Horace MANN, and Robert RANTOUL espoused the journeymen's cause. The right of workmen to combine for exactly these purposes, then considered by many as unlawful, has long since been recognized. Now we see in the industrial field managers of millions of money meeting periodically the representatives of thousands of workmen in their respective industries, and forming, after conference and debate, agreements for the continuance of the industry. A comparatively new term--"Collective Bargaining"--aptly defines what then takes place.