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The focus of this article is to examine the following questions: 1. whether, despite its unrestricted language, section 102(c) does not apply to some gratuitous transfers to an employee; 2. if so, what are the exceptions to section 102(c); and 3. when section 102(c) does not apply to a transfer, whether it will be excluded from income. Part II of this article examines the conditions under which a gratuitous transfer to an employee will be excluded from income under the Duberstein standard and under the normal tax treatment of testamentary transfers -- in other words, how the section 102(a) gift and bequest exclusion from income is applied when section 102(c) is inapplicable. Part III examines the operation of section 102(c)


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