Individual injury law was once an important arena for the definition of shared values. It has increasingly become the domain of various species of systems analysts who measure legal results against external norms defined by such disciplines as economics. Although legal scholars continue to use the expectations and beliefs of ordinary men and women in fashioning rules for the redress of constitutional injuries, common-law scholars have become less willing to ground legal principles in moral consensus. There are notable exceptions. Among these is Professor Marshall Shapo, who, in two recent works, attempts to develop a legal analysis of injury that "requires a substantial component of moral judgment" (Duty, p. xiii), "an analysis centered on humanitarian elements and considerations of fairness" (Duty, p. xv).
Whitman, Christina B. "A 'Humanitarian' Approach to Individual Injury." Review of The Duty to Act, by M. Shapo, and A Nation of Guinea Pigs, by M. Shapo. Mich. L. Rev. 79 (1981): 762-73.