In his attempt to define the meaning of democracy, Carl Becker, looking back to Plato's view of society, observed that "[a]ll human institutions, we are told, have their ideal forms laid away in heaven, and we do not need to be told that the actual institutions conform but indifferently to these ideal counterparts." Becker's observation may well set the perspective from which to view what occurred when the attempt was made in the District of Columbia to implement the Supreme Court's decision in Miranda v. Arizona.
Richard J. Medalie, Leonard Zeitz & Paul Alexander,
Custodial Police Interrogation in Our Nation's Capital: The Attempt to Implement Miranda,
Mich. L. Rev.
Available at: https://repository.law.umich.edu/mlr/vol66/iss7/3