The recent efforts on the part of state legislatures to increase the effectiveness of their criminal codes has resulted in extending the use of the statutory presumption to new fields of criminal law. The reaction which necessarily follows such an innovation upon traditional practice has appeared in the form of renewed attacks upon the constitutionality of the device, accompanied by the usual expressions of alarm concerning the "threat to liberty" that lurks in the use of this "mechanistic" instrument of "arbitrary oppression."
Edward M. Watson,
EVIDENCE - CONSTITUTIONAL LAW - USE OF STATUTORY PRESUMPTIONS IN CRIMINAL CASES,
Mich. L. Rev.
Available at: https://repository.law.umich.edu/mlr/vol38/iss3/5