The coming into force on January I, 1917 in the United States of the FXDMAL BILL Or LADING AcT1 has given new interest to a question which was at one time much debated, namely: should a carrier whose shipmaster or agent has signed a bill of lading be liable to an innocent holder for value of such bill of lading if the carrier can show that the goods were never shipped?
H S. Ross,
Liability of a Carrier under a Bill of Lading When the Goods Have Not Been Received by the Carrier,
Mich. L. Rev.
Available at: https://repository.law.umich.edu/mlr/vol15/iss1/4