This comparative study between the quest for political racial inclusivity in 1890s Louisiana and the fight against state-sanctioned racialized violence in Cuba in the early 1900s exposes similarities, tensions, and differences between the two systems. The article traces the evolving contests for citizenship and suffrage in each climate at the end of the 19th century and into the beginning of the twentieth, juxtaposing the expression of race, suffrage, and citizenship in the constitution and political climate of each locale. In 1898, the new Louisiana state constitution disenfranchised African-Americans, while in 1900 Cuba was positioning itself for a grant of universal suffrage in its new constitution. Although the paths seemed entirely divergent, each heavily influenced the other. The article also discusses the recruitment of African-American soldiers to fight in the war for Cuban independence, and how their experiences dovetailed with those of African-American sugar laborers in Louisiana.
Scott, Rebecca J. "Grados de libertad: Democracia y antidemocracia en Cuby y Luisiana, 1898-1900." Historia Social, no. 54 (2006): 19-50.