In this Article we explore the phenomenon of shared international responsibility among multiple actors that contribute to harmful outcomes that international law seeks to prevent. We examine the foundations and manifestations of shared responsibility, explain why international law has had difficulty in grasping its complexity, and set forth a conceptual framework that allows us to better understand and study the phenomenon. Such a framework provides a basis for further development of principles of international law that correspond to the needs of an era characterized by joint and coordinated, rather than independent, action.
Andre Nollkaemper & Dov Jacobs,
Shared Responsibility in International Law: A Conceptual Framework,
Mich. J. Int'l L.
Available at: http://repository.law.umich.edu/mjil/vol34/iss2/3