Omnis ratihabitio retrotrahitur, et mandato priori aequiparatur. Every ratification relates back, and is equivalent to a prior authority, is the second great maxim of agency, and has been said to be as well established and as simple of application as the first and fundamental one, qui facit per alium, facit per se. It was as well recognized in the Roman law, as it is in the common law.
Goddard, Edwin C. "Ratification by an Undisclosed Principal." Mich. L. Rev. 2 (1903): 25-45.