August 3, 1907, Judge Landis, in the United States District Court, for the Northern District of Illinois, sentenced the Standard Oil Co. to pay the largest fine ever inflicted upon any offender.1 The suit was an indictment on 1,903 counts for violations of the Elkins Rebate Law in receiving concessions on the movement of 1,903 cars of oil from Whiting, Indiana, to East St. Louis, Illinois, and from Chappell, Illinois, to St. Louis, Missouri, during the eighteen months between September I, 1903, and March 1, 1905. Four hundred and forty-one counts were withdrawn as not necessarily involved in this case. The plea was "Not Guilty." The verdict was "Guilty" on all the 1,462 remaining counts. The fine imposed was the maximum on each count--$20,000, or a total of $29,240,000.
Wilgus, Horace LaFayette. "The Standard Oil Fine." Mich. L. Rev. 6 (1907): 118-35.